Nodes + Links = Networks
Nodes and links – these are all the elements needed to model our complex networked world of people, places, and organizations. Almost all the sciences—physical, biological, human—make extensive use of network models—which is why there can be a general science of networks.

While organizations have been studied as networks of people (e.g., social network analysis), they have not been studied as networks of positions. People-in-positions entwine the social network of people with the organization network of positions.

People networks have typically been modeled with simple ties, “undirected links,” standing for some sort of relationship between two people-as-nodes. We model organization networks with “directed links,” lines with arrowheads, forceful relationships that generate dynamic patterns of interaction.
Networks are made up of nodes and links, which may be directed or undirected
Real-world nodes in organization networks cannot stand alone. Every node requires one, and only one, “holon” link, a unique relationship as a child part with a parent whole linked by a chain of whole/part relationships to a root whole. These parent/child boss/employee elements can be found in most HR-IT data systems
A fully articulated directed link is identified by the pair of nodes it connects, the order of the node pair, which defines the direction, and the type of relationship (e.g., reporting, process, group, information, or personal). Type is the third required element of link definition if more than one type of link is going to be mapped